Deploying a SLATE Cluster on CloudLab
CloudLab is a research platform for provisioning compute and networking resources. It can be leveraged to provide the resources upon which a SLATE cluster can run. This post will outline the process of setting up this SLATE cluster. More information about CloudLab can be found here.
Why SLATE on CloudLab
Running SLATE clusters on CloudLab enables researchers to quickly test and tweak many different parameters. For example, testing a network of SLATE clusters, with simulated experimental latency or real latency (provided by profiles that launch machines across multiple sites), is made possible by CloudLab. These experiments can be carried out at many scales, from across a campus, to across a region, to across the nation. In addition, differing topologies at both layer 2 and 3 can be tested. SLATE’s monitoring applications, including perfSONAR, can also be leveraged to understand different testbed profiles and their performance capabilities.
Additionally, being able to rapidly deploy SLATE clusters on CloudLab gives SLATE developers and users many useful capabilities. For example, new applications or new application configurations can be launched on temporary CloudLab clusters, but registered with the SLATE production API, providing a highly realistic yet safe environment for testing changes. Kubespray, the SLATE team’s preferred cluster bring-up tool, can also be quickly tested, or easily tested at scale with many machines on CloudLab.
Additionally, a SLATE account and CLI credentials are necessary.
A SLATE account can be created here. Click button that says “Sign Up” in the top right corner, and follow the prompts.
Once signed in to SLATE, you can access your SLATE CLI token here. This token is for the SLATE production API, and corresponds with an API endpoint of
For more information about getting started with SLATE, consult our quick-start guide here.
Additionally, comprehensive documentation for CloudLab can be found here.
Launching CloudLab Experiment
Next, a CloudLab experiment must be created. This experiment will contain the compute and networking resources needed to launch a SLATE cluster. Several CloudLab profiles have already been created to make this process easier.
Current SLATE-on-CloudLab profiles are listed here:
For simplicity, we will be using the
cloudlab-slate profile. This profile will bring up a single CENTOS 7 bare-metal node, as well as allocate a variable number of additional floating IPs.
To instantiate this profile, navigate to this page.
- Click the “Change Profile” button, and select the
cloudlab-slateprofile from the list of options.
- Next, you will be asked how many additional public IPs to allocate.
- Leave this at the default value, which is 2.
- Click next, and then select a cluster to install this profile on. Any CloudLab cluster should be fine. At this stage, you will also be asked for an optional experiment name. Unless you have many CloudLab experiments, leave this blank.
- After clicking next again, set an experiment duration (the default of 16 hours is OK).
- Finally, click “Finish” and wait for your experiment to fully spin up.
If you require more guidance instantiating your experiment, CloudLab has additional documentation here.
Note: Additional custom profiles can also be used; however, for full functionality, there are a few recommended guidelines. First, although many different Linux distributions can be used, the SLATE team recommends CentOS 7. Second, an additional pool of floating public IP addresses must be allocated for ingress and OSG applications to work. The CloudLab documentation has instructions for this here.
Creating a Kubernetes Cluster
Once our CloudLab experiment/instances have fully spun up, we can begin installing Kubernetes on the node(s). The SLATE team recommends that Kubespray be used for this.
However, we need a few additional pieces of information before we begin configuring Kubespray.
This serves as an outline for setting up a SLATE Kubernetes cluster on CloudLab. For the specific commands or versions please refer to the SLATE Kubernetes Cluster Creation documentation here.
What you will need to set up and run a succesful SLATE Kubernetes cluster:
- a CloudLab experiment
- key for CloudLab
ansible_ssh_common_argsadded to hosts.yaml
- public IP(s) and/or range for MetalLB
What you will not need to set up a SLATE Kuberentes cluster on CloudLab:
- set up behind a NAT
- IP for binding Kubernetes services
When creating your
hosts.yaml file, under
ansible_ssh_common_args:. This should point to the location where your private key for CloudLab can be found. CloudLab does not require an IP for binding Kubernetes services. CloudLab does, however, require the IP address for SSH connections to the host, which can be found when setting up a CloudLab experiment.
The instructions for setting up the CertManager, as well as the Kubernetes, Docker, and Calico versions required, can be found in the Kubernetes Cluster Creation here.
These are the default configuration steps we provide for setting up a Kubernetes cluster on CloudLab. Where appropriate, non-standard configuration steps can be used.
Using Kubespray will require you to know the IP address of your CloudLab node, as well as the additional IP addresses CloudLab has allocated for MetalLB.
MetalLB is a service that dynamically provides additional IPs for various services on a SLATE cluster that require their own dedicated IP. To do this, MetalLB requires at least one publicly routable, floating (not assigned and separate from your machine address) IP address to give out. This first extra public IP will be assigned to an Nginx Ingress Controller, a standard SLATE component. If you would like to run additional services that also require dedicated IPs (e.g. most OSG applications), you will want to allocate MetalLB more than one IP.
Usually, MetalLB is a required component for any SLATE cluster; however, there are some situations where it should not be deployed. If you are setting up a SLATE cluster behind any sort of NAT, you must disable MetalLB.
Otherwise, deploy MetalLB by following these instructions.
Locate IP address for CloudLab node
To find the IP address of your CloudLab node, as well as the additional IP addresses CloudLab has allocated for MetalLB, navigate to the “Manifest” tab of the CloudLab experiment page, which will be accessible as soon as your experiment has partially spun up.
First, scroll down to the line (or lines if you have multiple nodes) that look similar to this:
<host name="node1.user-QV98448.slate-PG0.utah.cloudlab.us" ipv4="xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx"/>
This IP address is your node’s public IP.
Next, to find the additional public IPs that MetalLB will use, look for the section that looks similar to this:
<emulab:routable_pool client_id="addressPool" count="2" type="any" component_manager_id="urn:publicid:IDN+site.cloudlab.us+authority+cm">
<emulab:ipv4 address="xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" netmask="xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx"/>
<emulab:ipv4 address="xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" netmask="xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx"/>
These IP address will be used as needed for
LoadBalancer services. You will have to specify them when you are editing the configuration files for Kubespray, as it will use them to set up MetalLB.
After you have located this information, follow the official SLATE instructions here to install Kubernetes with Kubespray. The standard installation instructions can be followed exactly, with the exception of making changes to accommodate a single-node cluster if necessary.
Once the Kubernetes cluster is operational, we can finally register it with SLATE! There is another Ansible playbook that has been developed to make this process easy as well.
The guide listed above will also cover the SLATE registration process here.
To verify cluster install, the Nginx SLATE application can be deployed. Do this by running
slate app install nginx --cluster <your_cloudlab_cluster> --group <your_slate_group>. If everything has been done properly, your SLATE cluster on CloudLab should now be serving an Nginx page!
Additionally, you can log into one of your cluster nodes via
ssh, and observe cluster status with
If you registered your SLATE cluster with the
slate-dev API server, SLATE will not automatically configure DNS records for ingress into your cluster. This must then be done outside of SLATE.
Contact the SLATE team here.